Examen LC C2 – Reading – Part 3

 Read the four texts below. There are eight questions about the texts. Decide which text (A, B, C or D) tells you the answer to the question. The first one is done for you.



This is a non-treatment study; however, volunteers receive hepatitis A and tetanus vaccinations. Numbers of phenotypically naive CD4+ cells (CD45RA+/CD62L+) are compared between healthy, HIV-seronegative volunteers and HIV-seropositive patients of A5015. An array of assays to assess baseline differences in immune function between these study populations are performed. Expression of markers of activation are compared by measuring the coexpression of HLA-DR+/CD38+ and CD28+ on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes between these populations. To investigate possible age-associated differences in apoptosis, Fas (CD95+) expression is measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry, and spontaneous apoptosis is assessed using the propidium iodide method.

Opioid compounds such as morphine produce powerful analgesia that is effective in treating various types of pain. In addition to their therapeutic efficacy, opioids can produce several well-known adverse events, and, as has recently been recognized, can interfere with the immune response. The immunomodulatory activities of morphine have been characterized in animal and human studies. Morphine can decrease the effectiveness of several functions of both natural and adaptive immunity, and significantly reduces cellular immunity. Indeed, in animal studies morphine is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to infection and worsening of cancer. However, from several animal studies it emerges that not all opioids induce the same immunosuppressive effects, and evaluating each opioid’s profile is important for appropriate analgesic selection.

Acute viral respiratory infections are the main infectious disease in the world. In 2020, a new disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), became a global pandemic. The immune response to the virus depends on factors such as genetics, age and physical state, and its main input receptor is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The practice of physical exercises acts as a modulator of the immune system. During and after physical exercise, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released, lymphocyte circulation increases, as well as cell recruitment. Such practice has an effect on the lower incidence, intensity of symptoms and mortality in viral infections observed in people who practice physical activity regularly, and its correct execution must be considered to avoid damage. 

The prevalence of diabetes has been rising steadily in the past half-century, along with the burden of its associated complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR is currently the most common cause of vision loss in working-age adults in the United States. Historically, DR has been diagnosed and classified clinically based on what is visible by fundoscopy; that is vasculature alterations. However, recent technological advances have confirmed pathology of the neuroretina prior to any detectable vascular changes. These, coupled with molecular studies, and the positive impact of anti-inflammatory therapeutics in DR patients have highlighted the central involvement of the innate immune system. Reminiscent of the systemic impact of diabetes, immune dysregulation has become increasingly identified as a key element of the pathophysiology of DR by interfering with normal homeostatic systems.


In which text is it mentioned that…

Example: An author who exemplifies source material with their own analysis.  D


  1. An individual’s immune system might be poorly influenced by painkillers.
  2. Some analyses are carried out to evaluate contrast.
  3. Being fit as a fiddle may correlate with a sturdy immunity.

Which text is saying the following?


  1. The fact that the immune system is not controlled seems to be the main aspect of this issue.
  2. A decline in sight has been observed as a mainstream outcome.
  3. Factors related to the stage of life are studied.
  4. The silver linings and drawbacks of the substance are to be examined in detail.