FUTURE TENSES

FUTURE

 

This is how we make it:

WILL + INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO

 

AFFIRMATIVEAFFIRMATIVE  SHORT  FORM
I will meet him laterI’ll meet him later
You will comeYou’ll come
It will rain tomorrowit’ll rain tomorrow
She will be lateshe’ll be late
He will help us laterhe’ll help us later
We will get married in Septemberwe’ll get married in September
They will cook dinnerthey’ll cook dinner
NEGATIVENEGATIVE  SHORT  FORM
I will not goI won’t go
You will not be lateyou won’t be late
It will not snow tomorrowit won’t snow tomorrow
She will not get the jobshe won’t get the job
He will not pass the examhe won’t pass the exam
We will not comewe won’t come
They will not stopthey won’t stop
YES / NO QUESTIONS:WH QUESTIONS
Will I go?Where will I go?
Will you come early?Why will you come early?
Will it be cold?When will it be cold?
Will she dance?Who will she dance with?
Will he arrive soon?What time will he arrive?
Will we cook?What will we cook?
Will they leave?When will they leave?

 

OK, now understand when to use the different future forms!

 

 Will

 

  1. We use will to predict the future. For future facts and things that are less certain.

 

The sun will rise at 7am.

I think the Conservatives will win the next election.

 

  1. Promises / requests / refusals / offers.

 

I’ll help you with your homework.

Will you give me a hand?

I won’t go!

 

In a similar way, we often use ‘will’ when we’re talking about a decision at the moment of speaking. 

 

A: I’m cold. B: I’ll close the window.

 

Shall

 

‘Shall’ is used mainly in the forms ‘shall I?’ and ‘shall we?’. It is used when you want to get someone’s opinion, especially for offers and suggestions.

 

Shall I open the window? (= Do you want me to open the window?)

Where shall we go tonight? (= What’s your opinion?)

 

Be going to

 

  1. We use ‘be going to’ to talk about our future intentions and plans. 

 

A: We’ve run out of milk. B: I know, I’m going to buy some.

I’m going to a concert next week.

 

  1. We can also use ‘be going to’ to make a prediction about the future. Often it’s possible to use both ‘be going to’ and ‘will’ but it’s more common to use ‘be going to’ if we can see evidence in the present.

 

Look at those boys playing football! They’re going to break the window.

The sky is getting darker and darker. It’s going to rain.

 

Present continuous

 

For definite future arrangements (with a future time word). In this case we have already made a plan and we are pretty sure that the event will happen in the future.

 

I’m watching a movie with my friends tomorrow

We are partying this weekend!

 

FUTURE PERFECT

 

This is how we make it:

WILL + HAVE + VERB IN THE PARTICIPLE FORM 

 

AFFIRMATIVESHORT FORM
By six pm tonight:
I will have finished this bookI’ll have finished this book
You will have studied the English tensesYou’ll have studied the English tenses
She will have cooked dinnerShe’ll have cooked dinner
He will have arrivedHe’ll have arrived
We will have met JulieWe’ll have met Julie
It will have stopped rainingIt’ll have stopped raining
They will have left JapanThey’ll have left Japan
NEGATIVESHORT FORM
By next week,
I will not have finished this bookI won’t have finished this book
You will not have studied the English tensesYou won’t have studied the English tenses
She will not have cooked dinnerShe won’t have cooked dinner
He will not have arrivedHe won’t have arrived
We will not have met JulieWe won’t have met Julie
It will not have stopped rainingIt won’t have stopped raining
They will not have left JapanThey won’t have left Japan
YES / NO QUESTIONS:WH QUESTIONS:
By next year,When will I have finished writing this book?
will I have finished writing this book?Why will you have studied all the English verb tenses by tomorrow?
will you have studied all the English verb tenses?When will she have been here three weeks?
will she have graduated?Why will he have got married before June?
will he have got married?Why will it have got colder by May?
will it have got colder?How will we have met your boyfriend by tonight?
will we have met your boyfriend?When will they have left their jobs?
will they have left their jobs?

 

OK, now understand when to use it

 

  1. to say ‘how long’ for an action that starts before and continues up to another action or time in the future. 

 

When we get married, I’ll have known Robert for four years.

At 4 o’clock, I’ll have been in this office for 24 hours.

On Tuesday, I will have lived here for one year.

 

  1. With a future time word, (and often with ‘by’) to talk about an action that will finish before a certain time in the future, but we don’t know exactly when.

 

By 10 o’clock, I will have finished my homework. (= I will finish my homework some time before 10, but we don’t know exactly when.)

By the time I’m sixty, I will have retired. (= I will retire sometime before I’m sixty. Maybe when I’m fifty-nine, maybe when I’m fifty-two.)

 

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

This is how we make it:

WILL + HAVE + BEEN + VERB IN THE ING FORM 

 

POSITIVESHORT FORM
I will have been workingI’ll have been working
You will have been sleepingYou’ll have been sleeping
She will have been studyingShe’ll have been studying
He will have been cookingHe’ll have been cooking
It will have been rainingIt’ll have been raining
We will have been exercisingWe’ll have been exercising
They will have been travellingThey’ll have been travelling
NEGATIVESHORT FORM
I will not have been workingI won’t have been working
You will not have been sleepingYou won’t have been sleeping
She will not have been studyingShe won’t have been studying
He will not have been cookingHe won’t have been cooking
It will not have been rainingIt won’t have been raining
We will not have been exercisingWe won’t have been exercising
They will not have been travellingThey won’t have been travelling
YES / NO QUESTIONSWH QUESTIONS
Will I have been working?Where will I have been working?
Will you have been sleeping?Why will you have been sleeping?
Will she have been studying?Where will she have been studying?
Will he have been cooking?What will he have been cooking?
Will it have been raining?How long will it have been raining?
Will we have been exercising?Where will we have been exercising?
Will they have been travelling?How long will they have been travelling?

 

OK, now understand when to use it

 

We can use the future perfect continuous to say ‘how long’ for an action that continues up to another point in the future. The second point can be a time or another action. 

 

In April, she will have been teaching for twelve years.

By the time you arrive, I’ll have been cooking for hours!

On Tuesday, I will have been working here for one year. 

 

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