Modelo examen 1 – Reading – Part 3

Read the four texts. Which text gives you the answer to each question? Choose the correct text (A-D) for each question.


A. One of the true fashion innovations of the sixteenth century was the introduction of the handkerchief as a fashion accessory. Handkerchiefs themselves were not new; people had been carrying a small cloth for blowing their nose for years. These soiled items, however, were kept tucked away out of sight, causing uncertainty as to when the first handkerchief was actually invented. In the sixteenth century, however, the handkerchief came out of the pocket and into public scrutiny. The same women who dressed in exquisite silk gowns with delicate lace ruffs, or collars, and cuffs had their tailors add lace or a scalloped edge to a fine linen cloth and elevated the handkerchief to the status of fashion accessory. A fine lacy handkerchief, or hanky, was not tucked away in a pocket but held in the hand or draped coyly across the arm. It might be matched with a fan or another accessory. Source: 



B. If you’re over 35, chances are you do carry a handkerchief. You may even think it’s crude not to. But if you’re under 35, you cringe at the idea. Sometime in the last two decades, there’s been a pronounced change in handkerchief protocol. »My mother used to say,» recalls a 48-year-old man we know, »that you weren’t well brought up unless you took a clean handkerchief every day. So every year, I buy another dozen – hand-rolled, Irish linen – and every day I shake open a clean one and put it in my pocket. But when my son sees that, he makes coarse comments about a snot rag. My daughter, echoing the Kleenex slogan, says ‘It’s disgusting to put a cold in your pocket.’ » Observe the generational transformation: To a mother, use of a handkerchief marks good manners. To a daughter, it’s an old-fashioned, unsanitary habit. What has changed? The obvious answer is technology. Until facial tissues were invented, the best one could do was to have a clean handkerchief for each day. With tissues, one could have a clean one for each use. Source: 



C. Chinese villagers used to wear handkerchiefs over their heads to protect themselves from the sun. Venetian sailors introduced Middle Eastern handkerchiefs to Europe, which was very common. The popularity of handkerchiefs boomed in Europe after Othello gave a handkerchief brought from the East to his lover in Shakespeare’s famous namesake play. They became a fashion trend in France where they were called «couvrechief» (headgear). Stylish French ladies wore couvrechiefs even if there was no sunshine outside. Indeed, they already had parasols that they used on sunny days. They were then brought to Britain and first called a «kerchief» and when people started to carry them in their hands, they called them «handkerchiefs.» Following the death of King Henry VII of England, there were 12 shirts and five handkerchiefs left from his wardrobe. Source: 



D. Household use of disposable facial tissue can add up – a Kimberly Clark LCA reports that affluent households in the Eastern U.S. purchase and use 5,600 sheets of facial tissue a year per household (Madsen, 2007).  A previous LCA on reusable handkerchief versus disposable tissue use (Blackburn, 2009) found that handkerchiefs were environmentally superior, but the study only computed impacts for energy, water use, and waste, and also assumed a much longer lifespan of the handkerchief (520 washes) compared to previously published LCAs on textile products (50 washes) (Laursen et al., 2007; Collins & Aumonier, 2002).  For this process LCA, the cradle‐to‐grave environmental impacts of disposable, virgin‐paper facial tissues and reusable cotton handkerchiefs were evaluated using a functional unit (nose blows/area) which assessed the variations in product usage over one year’s worth of respiratory illnesses and base, well‐periods. Use scenarios for an average American adult living in New England were constructed and modeled to better understand how impacts can vary based on intensity of use, frequency of use, and time length of use, taking into account published information on nose blowing frequency in colds and frequency of respiratory illnesses (Dick et al., 1987; Yale & Liu, 2004).  




In which text does the writer:

  1. include standpoints to support their thesis?
  2. illustrate a diversity of cultures? 
  3. imply that handkerchiefs became a luxury garment? 


Which text says the following: 

  1. The etymological origin of the term has varied through time. 
  2. Durability of handkerchiefs might have been overestimated. 
  3. Some people find the idea of reusing hankies sickening. 
  4. Various factors may determine a handkerchief’s duration. 


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