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1) Pascal is more straightforward about his thoughts than Bayes.
2) Pascal based his theory on a card game.
3) Bayes calculated certain modifying variables into his theory.
4) Climate models must have a number of ways of measuring the very same thing to be able to predict the most probable outcome.
5) It is impossible to properly set up the parameters as you have to account for all the possible ways it can happen.
A) Investigated the migration patterns of male hyenas.
B) No young males are allowed to join the group.
C) The rule requires males to have entered the group.
D) After the mating is successfully accomplished.
E) Females invest greatly in their young.
F) But may be widespread among other species that live in groups.
G) Inbred offsprings are vulnerable to disease.
H) Favouring those that had courted them for several years.
A – INUIT COMMUNITY, CANADA
For the people of Rigolet, a former trading post that is the southernmost Inuit community in Canada, the vanishing ice and increasingly unpredictable seasons means they’re being forced to adapt in ways they never have before. Like generations of Inuit before him, Derrick Pottle is a trapper and hunter. His diet of wild game, salmon, berries, trout and seal would have been familiar to his ancestors who were living in Hamilton Inlet around 8,000 years ago. But Pottle worries all the skills he’s learned from older generations may soon become irrelevant. More and more, Inuit are relying on expensive, store-bought processed foods because it’s safer and easier than catching or shooting supper. Pottle’s ancestors never experienced a time when their frozen world in northern Labrador was being altered so dramatically because of climate change. Shrinking ice packs and more severe weather has made travel increasingly difficult and dangerous, often cutting people off from other communities and traditional hunting lands. Some changes are more subtle. Summers have always been short here, and marked by tormenting swarms of black flies. But Paula McLean-Sheppard, a Nunatsiavut government employee, said she has been startled to see the insects arriving earlier and earlier in the spring. Rigolet’s fishermen say new species are arriving in the bay, from cormorants to sharks to sea turtles, chasing warming waters and the food that comes with them. Seals, a key source of food and hides for waterproof clothes, are moving further and further up the bay as the sea ice vanishes. Others blame the decline of the region’s caribou herd on the changing climate, too. Some of the changes are harder to see. McLean-Sheppard worries that as coastal Labrador’s sea ice becomes increasingly unreliable, it’s causing more anxiety among Inuit who feel stuck and unable to travel to catch their food.
B – ETHIOPIA & SOMALIA
Three times a day, Sara Saban walks under the burning sun to fetch water for her family. Close to her village in the centre of Ethiopia’s Somali Region, women, children and men line up in front of the only available well within walking distance. Their donkeys patiently wait as they fill their yellow jerry cans with water. A few meters away, others dig a hole in the dried-out riverbed to collect what little murky water they can find. «The underground water is very limited because we are facing a drought,» Sara, a mother of ten, told DW. «The water quality is also very bad, so sometimes we suffer from stomach-related illnesses.» The Somali Region has suffered from chronic drought for several years, with the worst stretch recorded in 2016, from which many households have yet to recover. This year the short rainy season known as the ‘belg’, which typically lasts from March to May, once again failed to provide much-anticipated ground water. The livestock have already started to die. This has had catastrophic consequences for the pastoral communities, which make up the majority of the Somali population. They rely on cattle and other farm animals for their livelihood: selling them at the market, drinking their milk and eating their meat. Since the beginning of the year, Sara lost one cow, 20 goats and five sheep. «It rained for only five days, and they were very small showers, so the grass did not grow enough to feed the livestock,» she explains. «Cattle are the most vulnerable to drought, followed by sheep and goats,» says Ahmed Mohammed, FAO’s Somali Region field coordinator. «If we don’t protect the core breeding animals at this stage of the drought, this will lead to mass mortality of animals and the families will be stripped of their livelihood assets. Rebuilding these lost livelihoods later on will be an enormous task, so it is less expensive and more efficient to protect and save livelihoods before they are lost.»
C – COLOMBIA & VENEZUELA
The Wayuu people are the largest indigenous tribe in northern Colombia and northwest Venezuela. In Colombia, they live in the La Guajira region. Their home area is comprised of 20,000 km and is rich in salt and petroleum deposits. Families often earn a living from harvesting salt and extracting petroleum, but their main sources of income are cattle ranching and fishing, which makes them particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Recently, in La Guajira, there have been severe water shortages, which have been exacerbated by a lack of rain for three years. Over the past few years, this drought has caused over 20,000 of the region’s cattle to die. For water, many of the Wayuu communities rely on the Ranchería River, one of the longest rivers in La Guajira. Without this water, their struggle to survive becomes increasingly strained. In addition to suffering from the effects of climate change, the Wayuu must compete for water with the continent’s largest open-pit coal mine. In 2006, the construction of El Cercado dam started. The dam was designed to stop the flow of the Ranchería River and to create a reservoir that would provide nine communities with improved access to water. After the dam was completed, however, it became clear that while the reservoir would supply the mine, the Wayuu communities would be unable to access water from either the reservoir or the river, which would leave them worse off than they had originally been.
D – SOUTHEAST AND CENTRAL ASIA
Much of Asia may see 50% more rainfall due to climate change, although countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan may experience a decline in rainfall by 20-50%, says a new report by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. The increase in rainfall is not necessarily good news either, because the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has forecast fewer rainy days, but more intense rainfall on those days. This means more flooding, and less rainwater eventually percolating underground to recharge aquifers. And there will probably be more intense typhoons and cyclones as global temperatures go up, says the ADB report, called A Region at Risk: The Human Dimensions of Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific. Coastal and low-lying areas in Asia will be at an increased risk of flooding. Nineteen of the 25 cities most exposed to a one-metre sea-level rise are in Asia, seven in the Philippines alone. Indonesia will be the country worst hit by coastal flooding, with approximately 5.9 million people affected every year until 2100. All this will have serious economic consequences. Global flood losses are expected to increase to USD 52 billion per year by 2050 from USD 6 billion in 2005. Climate change will also make food production in the region more difficult and production costs higher. In some countries of Southeast Asia, rice yields could decline by up to 50% by 2100 if no adaptation efforts are made. Meanwhile, in Central Asia, almost all crop yields in Uzbekistan are projected to decrease by 20- 50% by 2050 even in a two-degree Celsius temperature increase scenario. Marine ecosystems, particularly in the Western Pacific, will be in serious danger by 2100. All coral reef systems in the region will collapse due to mass coral bleaching if global warming proceeds as per the status quo.
Example: mentions the drawbacks of an increase in rainfall? D
1) Describes differences in how water shortage affects animal species?
2) Mentions the loss of traditional abilities as a consequence of climate change?
3. Blames climate change and human action for the problems affecting the local community?
4. Fan the flames of water scarcity.
5. Burgeoning concern for uncertain nourishment.
6. Falling of grains if modifications are not accomplished.
7. A specific side effect of climate change made it challenging for individuals.
1) What causes unhealthy conditions among developed countries’ citizens?
2) Apparently, we have become less brilliant in terms of nutrition…
3) What element has supposed a point of no return when it comes to eating in Occidental nations?
4) What indirectly influences the quality of crops’ substances?
5) Concretely, what costs an arm and a leg currently but not so much later on?
6) Who is searching for guilty parties instead of assuming responsibilities?
7) A diminished intake boils down to…
8. What seed should be planted in kids’ minds so that they nurture themselves better?