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1) The main issue explained in the first paragraph is that colours can have different associations in different parts of the world
2) The lack of academic work on the history of colour is because there are problems of reliability associated with the artefacts available.
3) It is common to find available data when conducting historical research on colour.
4) In the fourth paragraph, the writer says that the historian writing about colour should be analysed in an old-fashioned way.
5) In the fifth paragraph, the writer says there needs to be further research done on the relationship between artistic works and the history of colour.
A) The recruitment of men to the armed forces during the conflict in Europe from 1914 to 1918 meant there was very little persecution, since gamekeepers went off to fight. As the number of gamekeepers decreased, the wildcat began to increase its range, recolonising many of its former haunts. Extinction was narrowly averted.
B) The wildcat waits for a while in rapt concentration, ears twitching and eyes watching, seeing everything and hearing everything, trying to detect the tell-tale movement of a vole or a mouse. But there is nothing, and in another leap he disappears into the gloom.
C) The results, which are expected shortly, will be fascinating. But anyone who has seen a wildcat will be in little doubt that there is indeed a unique and distinctive animal living in the Scottish Highlands, whatever his background.
D) Wildcats may look similar to pet cats, but there are several differences including the wide, flat head, ears pointing more sideways, ringed, bushy, blunt-ended tail, and distinctly striped coat.
E) As the animals emerge, their curiosity is aroused by every movement and rustle in the vegetation. Later they will accompany their mother on hunting trips, learning quickly, and soon become adept hunters themselves.
F) This is what makes many people think that the wildcat is a species in its own right. Research currently being undertaken by Scottish Natural Heritage is investigating whether the wildcat really is distinct from its homeliving cousin, or whether it is nothing more than a wild-living form of the domestic cat.
G) It is a typical image most folk have of the beast, but it is very much a false one, for the wildcat is little more than a bigger version of the domestic cat, and probably shows his anger as often.
H) They probably used deciduous and coniferous woodland for shelter, particularly in winter, and hunted over more open areas such as forest edge, open woodland, thickets and scrub, grassy areas and marsh. The wildcat was probably driven into more mountainous areas by a combination of deforestation and persecution.
A Lana Esslet
The arts matter because they link society to its past, a people to its inherited store of ideas, images and words; yet the arts challenge those links in order to find ways of exploring new paths and ventures. I remain sceptical of claims that humanity’s love of the arts somehow reflects some inherent inclination, fundamental to the human race. However, exposure to and study of the arts does strengthen the individual and fosters independence in the face of the pressures of the mass, the characterless, the undifferentiated. And just as the sciences support the technology sector, the arts stimulate the growth of a creative sector in the economy. Yet, true as this is, it seems to me to miss the point. The value of the arts is not to be defined as if they were just another economic lever to be pulled. The arts can fail every measurable objective set by economists, yet retain their intrinsic value to humanity.
B Seth North
Without a doubt, the arts are at the very centre of society and innate in every human being. My personal, though admittedly controversial, belief is that the benefits to both individuals and society of studying science and technology, in preference to arts subjects, are vastly overrated. It must be said, however, that despite the claims frequently made for the civilising power of the arts, to my mind the obvious question arises: Why are people who are undeniably intolerant and selfish still capable of enjoying poetry or appreciating good music? For me, a more convincing argument in favour of the arts concerns their economic value. Needless to say, discovering how much the arts contribute to society in this way involves gathering a vast amount of data and then evaluating how much this affects the economy as a whole, which is by no means straightforward.
C Heather Charlton
It goes without saying that end-products of artistic endeavour can be seen as commodities which can be traded and exported, and so add to the wealth of individuals and societies. While this is undeniably a substantial argument in favour of the arts, we should not lose sight of those equally fundamental contributions they make which cannot be easily translated into measurable social and economic value. Anthropologists have never found a society without the arts in one form or another. They have concluded, and I have no reason not to concur, that humanity has a natural aesthetic sense which is biologically determined. It is by the exercise of this sense that we create works of art which symbolise social meanings and over time pass on values which help to give the community its sense of identity, and which contribute enormously to its self-respect.
D Mike Konecki
Studies have long linked involvement in the arts to increased complexity of thinking and greater self-esteem. Nobody today, and rightly so in my view, would challenge the huge importance of maths and science as core disciplines. Nevertheless, sole emphasis on these in preference to the arts fails to promote the integrated left/right-brain thinking in students that the future increasingly demands, and on which a healthy economy now undoubtedly relies. More significantly, I believe that in an age of dull uniformity, the arts enable each person to express his or her uniqueness. Yet while these benefits are enormous, we participate in the arts because of an instinctive human need for inspiration, delight, joy. The arts are an enlightening and humanising force, encouraging us to come together with people whose beliefs and lives may be different from our own. They encourage us to listen and to celebrate what connects us, instead of retreating behind what drives us apart.
Example: have a different view from North regarding the effect of the arts on behaviour towards others? D
1) Have a different view from Konecki on the value of studying the arts compared to other academic subjects?
2) Express a different opinion to the others on whether the human species has a genetic predisposition towards the arts?
3) Express a similar view to Esslett on how the arts relate to demands to conform?
4) Art has a bearing on the society marketplace.
5) The value of art overtakes the affluence matter.
6) The work of art worth has a deep rotted magnitude.
7) The perks of art are undeniably far from expected.
1) What was the “gruesome discovery” made by the police in London?
2) What had they expected to find?
3) Why were the victims in the lorry?
4) What disadvantages of life in Britain are many immigrants willing to overlook?
5) Why does Britain seem particularly attractive for many people in developing countries?
6) Why do illegal immigrants find it easy to escape detection in Britain?
7) Why has the flow of immigrants increased in recent years?
8) What are people traffickers?
9) What is the main easiness to go to Britain?
10) Why is illegal immigration likely to remain a big issue in the years to come?