Listening Model 19

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Part 1:



Number 1:

A: The best thing was the main stars – they were so convincing.
B: I still think it was a pretty weak storyline despite there being loads of A-list actors in it.




Number 2:

A: The Black Hole is on at the moment. It’s not my thing, but I know you love sci-fi .
B: Ah, yes that film’s supposed to be brilliant. OK thanks, that’ll be great.




Number 3:

– I have to admit, you have a point. People do generally show a very positive picture of their lives on social media. But you can still find out about what they’ve been doing and who they’ve been seeing.




Number 4:

A: I’m not a fast reader so the pictures have helped me.
B: I’m not keen on horror stories.
A: But it isn’t scary. It’s more like a sci-fi story.




Number 5:

A: I think she could teach us a lot about how to write and get ideas down on paper.
B: Yes, but not all students want to do that!




Number 6:

– Do you know what I really like about Emily? She’s very rarely depressed and if she ever gets down about something, it doesn’t last long.




Part 2


Conversation 1:

Lily: Ted, isn’t this view absolutely breathtaking? I can’t believe we have such natural beauty right outside New York City.


Ted: I know, Lily. It’s amazing how refreshing it is to be surrounded by nature instead of the concrete jungle. We should do this more often.


Lily: I couldn’t agree more. I feel so rejuvenated already. Plus, hiking is a great way to stay fit and healthy.


Ted: Absolutely, and the best part is that we can enjoy some delicious and healthy snacks while we’re at it. I brought some homemade granola bars. Want one?


Lily: Yes, please! Your granola bars are always the best. It’s like a burst of energy in every bite.


Ted: Thanks, Lily. I’m glad you like them. I’ve been experimenting with different ingredients to make them even better.


Lily: You should definitely start selling them. I’m sure they would be a hit. I can already imagine people buying them in the city and taking them on their hikes.


Ted: That’s an interesting idea. Maybe I should give it a try. I’ll have to do some research on how to turn it into a business.


Lily: I’ll help you with that. We could even organize a tasting event in the city and see how people respond. It could be our little project together.


Ted: I appreciate your support, Lily. You’re always so encouraging. It’s one of the things I love about our friendship.


Lily: The feeling is mutual, Ted. We’ve been through so much together, and I’m grateful to have you by my side. These hikes remind me of the adventures we used to have growing up.


Ted: Yes, those were the days. It’s a shame we can’t do this more often, given our busy lives in the city.


Lily: I agree, but we should make a conscious effort to prioritize our well-being and take breaks from the hustle and bustle. Nature has a way of grounding us and putting things into perspective.


Ted: You’re right, Lily. We owe it to ourselves to find the time and make it happen. Let’s promise to schedule regular hiking trips from now on.


Lily: Deal! We can start by exploring the nearby trails and then gradually venture further away. I can’t wait for our next adventure.




Conversation 2:

Marshall: Hey Adam, let’s watch a movie tonight. What genre are you in the mood for?
Adam: Hmm, I’m torn between an action film and a psychological thriller. What about you?
Marshall: I’m leaning more towards the action film. I love the adrenaline rush and the intense fight scenes.
Adam: Action films can be exciting, but I find psychological thrillers more intriguing. They mess with your mind and keep you guessing till the end.
Marshall: True, but sometimes they can be too slow-paced for my liking. Action films are fast-paced and keep you on the edge of your seat throughout.
Adam: That’s a valid point, but psychological thrillers offer a different kind of suspense. They make you question reality and explore the depths of the human mind.
Marshall: I get what you’re saying, but I prefer the straightforwardness of action films. You know what you’re getting into, and it’s pure entertainment.
Adam: I agree that action films are entertaining, but psychological thrillers make you think and analyze the characters’ motives. It’s like solving a puzzle.
Marshall: Well, action films provide a good escape from reality. The stunts and special effects can be mind-blowing.
Adam: That’s true, but psychological thrillers provide a thought-provoking experience. They make you reflect on your own fears and emotions.
Marshall: Okay, let’s compromise. How about we watch an action-packed psychological thriller? It combines the best of both worlds!
Adam: That sounds like a great idea! We get the excitement of an action film with the psychological depth of a thriller. I’m in!




Conversation 3:

Ellie: Hey, Sarah! Guess what? I’ve recently started a new vegan diet!


Sarah: Wow, that’s interesting! What made you decide to go vegan?


Ellie: Well, I’ve been doing some research on the environmental impact of animal agriculture, and it really opened my eyes. I want to reduce my carbon footprint and contribute to a more sustainable planet.


Sarah: I understand your concerns about the environment, but don’t you think it’s extreme to completely eliminate animal products from your diet?


Ellie: I see where you’re coming from, Sarah. But there are many delicious and nutritious plant-based alternatives available now. Plus, I believe it’s a personal choice to align my diet with my values.


Sarah: I agree that everyone has the right to choose their own diet, but I’m worried about your health. Are you getting all the necessary nutrients from a vegan diet?


Ellie: That’s a valid concern, Sarah. However, with proper planning and a balanced diet, it’s absolutely possible to get all the essential nutrients from plant-based sources. I’ve been educating myself and making sure I’m meeting my nutritional needs.


Sarah: Alright, I can respect your decision. But what about social situations? Won’t it be challenging to find vegan options when dining out or attending events?


Ellie: Yup, It can be a bit challenging at times, I won’t deny that. However, more and more restaurants and caterers are offering vegan options nowadays. It’s about being prepared and communicating your dietary preferences in advance.


Sarah: I guess that’s true. It’s important to be proactive and find ways to accommodate your choices. I’ll keep that in mind.





Part 3


The concept of using printed money as a medium of exchange dates back centuries, tracing its roots to ancient civilizations. Over time, this form of currency has undergone numerous transformations, reflecting the changing needs and advancements of society. Today, as we stand on the cusp of a digital era, the future of physical currency is uncertain. Now, let’s delve into the fascinating history of printed money and explore the potential changes that lie ahead.


The origins of printed money can be found in ancient China, where merchants and traders utilized promissory notes as a means of facilitating trade. These notes, known as «jiaozi,» represented a promise to pay a specified amount of coins upon presentation. Similar systems emerged in medieval Europe, with various entities issuing paper bills to facilitate commercial transactions. However, it wasn’t until the 17th century that the concept of paper money gained widespread recognition.


In the 1690s, the Bank of England introduced banknotes as a more convenient and standardized alternative to metal coins. These banknotes were initially backed by the gold and silver reserves held by the bank, giving them intrinsic value. The adoption of printed money by central banks and governments soon followed, leading to the establishment of official currencies worldwide.


Throughout history, printed money has played a pivotal role in shaping economies and societies. It has provided a more portable and divisible means of exchange, enabling trade to flourish on a larger scale. The printing process itself has evolved significantly, with advancements in technology making it easier and faster to produce currency. Sophisticated anti-counterfeiting measures, such as watermarks, holograms, and security threads, have been implemented to safeguard the integrity of banknotes.


However, the rise of digital transactions and the increasing prevalence of cashless societies have cast a shadow of doubt over the future of physical currency. Electronic payment systems, such as credit cards, mobile wallets, and cryptocurrencies, offer convenience, security, and efficiency. As more people embrace these digital alternatives, the demand for physical money decreases.


In response to this shift, some countries have already taken steps to reduce their reliance on physical currency. Sweden, for instance, has witnessed a significant decline in cash usage, prompting discussions about the potential abandonment of cash altogether. Other nations have explored the concept of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), which are digital representations of a country’s fiat currency. CBDCs could offer the benefits of digital transactions while maintaining the stability and legitimacy of government-issued money.


Despite these advancements, the complete eradication of physical currency seems unlikely in the foreseeable future. Cash continues to be widely used and accepted, particularly in regions with limited access to digital infrastructure or concerns about privacy and security. Furthermore, physical money carries cultural and historical significance, representing a tangible connection to the past.


As we venture further into the digital age, the future of printed money remains uncertain. Will physical currency become obsolete? Will digital transactions reign supreme? The answers to these questions will depend on a complex interplay of technological advancements, societal preferences, and economic considerations.





Part 4


Robin: Hi Josh, it’s great to see you. I’ve been so excited to talk to you about precision medicine and how genomics is revolutionizing healthcare. It’s truly a fascinating field, isn’t it?


Josh: Absolutely, Robin! Precision medicine is a game-changer. The ability to tailor medical treatments to an individual’s genetic makeup is opening up new possibilities and improving patient outcomes. Genomics has provided us with a wealth of information that we can use to develop personalized treatment plans.


Robin: I couldn’t agree more. With advancements in genomic sequencing technologies, we can now obtain detailed information about a person’s genetic variants and mutations. This allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of diseases and develop targeted therapies.


Josh: It’s incredible how genomics has enhanced our understanding of diseases. By analyzing gene expression patterns and genetic mutations, we can identify specific molecular targets for drug development. This leads to more effective treatments with fewer side effects.


Robin: Exactly! Take cancer, for example. Through genomic analysis, we can identify specific genetic mutations driving the growth of tumors. With this knowledge, we can develop targeted therapies that attack these mutations, leading to better outcomes for cancer patients.


Josh: Precision medicine also holds great promise in the field of pharmacogenomics. By studying an individual’s genetic makeup, we can predict how they will respond to certain medications. This allows us to optimize drug dosages and choose the most effective treatment options, minimizing adverse reactions.


Robin: Yes, and let’s not forget about the potential of genomics in rare diseases. Many of these conditions are caused by genetic mutations that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Genomic sequencing helps us uncover these mutations and develop personalized therapies tailored to the patient’s specific genetic profile.


Josh: Absolutely. By combining genomics with bioinformatics tools and advanced data analysis techniques, we can extract valuable insights from large datasets and uncover new associations between genes and diseases. This will further drive the development of targeted therapies and precision medicine approaches.


Robin: Another aspect of precision medicine that is gaining momentum is the integration of lifestyle factors and environmental influences into treatment plans. Genomic information combined with data on diet, exercise, and environmental exposure can provide a more comprehensive understanding of an individual’s health risks and guide personalized interventions.


Josh: That’s a great point, Robin. Precision medicine is not just about genetics; it’s about considering the entire context of a person’s health. By taking into account lifestyle factors and environmental influences, we can create truly personalized treatment plans that address the unique needs of each individual.


Robin: And the future of precision medicine looks even more promising. As technology advances, we can expect even more sophisticated genomic sequencing techniques and more comprehensive bioinformatics tools. This will enable us to uncover even more valuable information about an individual’s genetic makeup and further refine personalized treatment approaches.


Josh: Absolutely, Robin. The potential is immense, and it’s an exciting time to be in the field of genomics and molecular biology. With each new discovery and advancement, we get closer to realizing the full potential of precision medicine and its ability to transform healthcare.
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